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Raymond Jonson was one of the foremost 20th century nonobjective painters in America. Although his celebrity was not that of other painters who traveled to New Mexico, such as Georgia O’Keeffe or Marsden Hartley, his contributions to art were on par with the most celebrated Modern artists. He founded many artist groups in both Chicago and New Mexico, including the Transcendental Painting Group and Cor Ardens. Greatly influenced by Wassily Kandinsky and the Bauhaus artists, he advanced new technologies in American art (e.g. the use of the airbrush and polymer paints), and devoted himself to exploring the spiritual in art. The Jonson Gallery, founded in the 1950, was a permanent exhibition space dedicated to the progression and exhibition of spiritual-nonobjective art. It was not solely Raymond Jonson’s art which made him noteworthy, but his contributions to Art as an innovator, teacher, curator, and mentor.
Raymond Jonson was born Carl Raymond Johnson on July 18th, 1891 in Chariton Iowa. Both his parents were Swedish immigrants, and his father, Gustav, was a reverend in the Baptist church. Gustav’s duties to the church required the family to relocate often (Raymond was the eldest of six). Raymond grew up all over the American west and was intimately familiar with the landscape. Raymond’s mother taught him to read and write; he did not attend school until 1899 when his family lived in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 1902, his family settled permanently in Portland, Oregon (Hartel 20).
Johnson showed an interest in the arts from an early age. He was the first student to register for classes at the Portland Art Association School of Art when it opened in 1909. In 1910, at the age of nineteen, Jonson moved to Chicago to continue his art training at the Chicago Academy of Fine arts. During the two years he attended, he received formal art training in composition, color theory, anatomy, drawing from a nude model, oil painting, and commercial design and illustration (Hartel 29). In 1911, Jonson met B.J.O. Nordfeldt who was a teacher at the Academy. Nordfeldt was a mentor and friend to Jonson for the rest of his life and was responsible for converting Jonson to modernist modes of visual expression (Hartel 38; Garman 14).
1913 was a seminal year for Jonson. He viewed the Armory Show the day it opened in Chicago—it left him feeling that, “artists could now make paintings that freely express their temperament, ideas, and views of the world, and their experiences of the physical reality around them” (Hartel 48). In the same year, he had his first public art exhibition at Third Annual Exhibit of Swedish-American Artists at the Swedish Club in Chicago. There he met Swedish-American painter Birger Sandzén, who became a lifelong friend and mentor (Hartel 78, 91). Also in 1913, Jonson began working at the Chicago Little Theatre. Hired upon the recommendation of Nordfeldt, his duties included stage-designer, stage-manager, stage-carpenter, scene-painter, sceneshifter, electrician, and, on occasion, actor (Garman 26). He worked at the theatre until it closed in 1917. In 1916, Jonson met Vera White, an amateur musician who worked for the Chicago Little Theatre as a secretary. The two married on December 25, 1916 (Hartel 30).
In 1920, Jonson (spelled Johnson at the time) looked through a Chicago phonebook and realized his exact name was only one of many. As an emerging artist, he wanted a way to distinguish himself, yet not dissolve ties to his family and past (Ware interview). When his father immigrated to the United States, he changed his surname from the Swedish Jonsson to the Americanized Johnson. Raymond settled on Jonson [pronounced JOAN-sen] to blend his need for individuality with his past (Hartel 20).
Jonson received a copy of Kandinsky’s The Art of Spiritual Harmony in August of 1921. He first viewed works by Kandinsky in 1913 at the Armory show, and the book confirmed many thoughts that he had developed independently. Foremost was Jonson’s fundamental belief that art was a spiritual endeavor and that paintings should be an expression of the spirit. Additionally, Jonson thought of himself as akin to a musician—his wife, brother, sister-in-law, and brother-in-law were all musicians. While working at the Chicago Little Theatre, he manipulated the light for plays as a composer would musical notes (Ware 33). He transferred this concept into his paintings—color wasn’t a stagnant and transparent detail, but a physical object with its own weight and presence: “Some of us want to do the same thing with color, line, and shape that a musician can do with sound. We want to compose independent of imitation and to express in plastic form the inner significance of vibrations and a certain sense of cosmic rightness through the functioning of intellect and the subconscious” (Garman 105). The influence of Kandinsky is evident through the rest of Jonson’s career.
At the encouragement of Berger Sandzén, Jonson and Vera spent the summer of 1922 in New Mexico. Although this was not his first visit to the state, it was far more influential than his first—inspiring him to change the direction of his life and art. It was during this trip that he decided to relocate to New Mexico. He painted only sporadically over the next two years, focusing his energy on making enough money to pay his debts in Chicago and move to Santa Fe. The aesthetic beauty of the Southwest did not solely inspire his decision to relocate; it was the need to live inexpensively and to escape the noise, dirt, and hectic pace of the modern American city, which was more often than not unappealing to Jonson (Hartel 86).
Upon arriving in Santa Fe in 1924, Jonson and Vera were able to purchase two and a quarter acres of land off of the old Santa Fe Trail for $460 (Hartel 96). However, the move did little to alleviate Jonson’s financial problems—he earned just enough to survive by teaching art and selling art supplies from his garage. In 1927, Jonson formed the loose-knit group of artists named “Six Men.” This consisted of Jonson, Nordfeldt, Andrew Dasburg, Jozef Bakos, Willard Nash, and John E. Thompson. They exhibited together in Seattle, Tucson, and San Francisco. In 1929, Jonson abruptly changed his subject matter, almost entirely giving up landscape painting, which was his primary expression up to this point. Instead, he adopted highly abstract images of plant forms, numerals, alphabet letters, colors, and modern architecture (Hartel 161). This was a major step toward depicting the spiritual world and transcending the physical. In early 1934, Jonson began teaching at the University of New Mexico. He took over the teaching assignments of Kenneth Adams, who moved to Europe for a year. Although at first he only taught once a week, this position would be the keystone that changed Jonson’s life (Hartel 96 -100).
Jonson’s work went through another profound change in the late 1930s. This was due to two important factors. The first was his meeting Lazlo Moholy-Nagy in Chicago in late 1937 and the second was the founding of the Transcendental Painting Group in 1938. Jonson wrote little about Nagy, however, meeting one of the members of the original Bauhaus and a peer of Kandinsky was undoubtedly deeply inspiring. One aspect of this influence is evidenced in Jonson’s method of naming his work. From this point on, he titled all his works according to medium, number, and year (e.g. Watercolor No. 1, 1940). Moholy also avoided using descriptive titles and preferred to name his work Construction or Composition with an associated number. The Bauhaus artists also employed the airbrush and, in 1938, Jonson began using it regularly. The airbrush was a stylistic and expressive epiphany for Jonson. It allowed him to apply paint quickly and efficiently while also focusing solely on form and color without the physical intervention of a brush. It was a merger of medium and message (Hartel 262, 268, 272-273, 286).
In 1938, Raymond Jonson and Emil Bisttram founded of the Transcendental Painting Group (TPG). Although small and short lived, the TPG reflected a growing desire in artists to express one’s inner thoughts, emotions, and spirituality in an abstract manner. It was analogous to the American Abstract Artists (AAA) that began in New York in 1936. It is important to note that throughout the great depression and World War II, people viewed abstract art as a luxury. The overall trend in art was toward Regionalism and Social Realism. For any group of artists to disregard this trend in favor of abstraction was to attract public derision. The TPG was a validating force in Jonson’s new artistic developments—he was not the only artist at the time focused on abstraction and spiritually. The TPG consisted of: Raymond Jonson, Emil Bisttram, Agnes Pelton, Lawren Harris, Florence Miller Pierce, Horace Towner Pierce, William Lumpkins, Robert Gribbroek, Stuart Walker, and later Ed Garman (Dane Rudhyar was an affiliated member). They sought to disassociate themselves from the Transcendentalists of the Transcendental Movement in American Literature. However, they could think of no better word to describe their goals—they transcended the politics of art and society, the petty squabbles of mankind, and created art purely for the purpose of making the world a more beautiful and harmonious place in which to live. In this endeavor, they believed that abstract art could more clearly express sensations of beauty and harmony than artwork that referenced society or nature (Ware interview). At the beginning of World War II, many of the members of the group were drafted and thus began the slow decline of the TPG. By 1945, only a few members were still paying their dues and the TPG officially disbanded, although the group had functionally ceased to exist in 1942 (Hartel 251, 252, 259, 263).
It was during this time that Jonson painted his first truly nonobjective paintings. His works from 1929-1937 are categorized as abstract because they begin with a symbol or form found in everyday life and abstract it into its primary shape (e.g. painting a mountain as a triangle or the sun as a circle). In fact, letters and numbers are the most basic form of abstraction that exist in human thought. The number “2” does not have any visual reference for the concept of two. It is a symbol that refers to the idea of two things. The same is true in the English language. The word “tree” does not visually reference a tree; it is a collection of symbols that English speakers acknowledge refers to the concept of a tree. Truly nonobjective painting does not begin with any acknowledged symbol or reference in reality; it strives to capture pure form and color totally separate from physical reality: “Cannot a totally nonrepresentational art be a stronger affair, a richer organization, than the assemblage of a great deal of material which is related to nature rather than to painting?” (Garman 87). Many artists never make this transition; it took Jonson decades to make this conceptual leap. Knowing that there was a general confusion between the terms abstract and nonobjective, Jonson adopted the term Absolute (also used by Kandinsky and Hilla Rebay) to describe these pieces. Most critics believe that his greatest achievement in Absolute art was between 1938 and 1949; however, he created many of his most profound works after 1960 (Hartel 304).
The defining event that separates Jonson’s Absolute period from his late period is the founding of the Jonson gallery in 1950. Jonson maintained his position at the University of New Mexico from 1934 to 1954, retiring as a full professor with a pension and professional honors. This connection with the university is in large part what enabled his dedication to creative explorations in painting rather than the commercial aspect of selling work. In 1948, he proposed the idea of founding the Jonson Gallery on the UNM campus to the board of regents. That year the project was approved and they began planning. He and John Gaw Meem designed it to serve as a living space, studio, and exhibition space for his work and other artists who shared his dedication to spiritual nonobjective art. The Jonson Gallery opened in 1950; this enabled Jonson to have an extremely productive late career (Hartel 372-373).
His late works differ from his Absolute period in a few fundamental aspects. In the mid-1950s, he began working on a much larger scale. Rather than painting on an easel as he had previously, he placed his canvas or Masonite on the floor. This allowed him to work from every angle and balance his pieces in new ways. In 1957, he adopted acrylic paint. This medium became a perfect fusion of his airbrushed watercolor paintings and his brushed oils. Oil paint does not work in most airbrushes due to its high viscosity; watercolor is suitable for airbrushing but lacks the depth of color and opacity achievable with oil—acrylic paints dry quicker than oil, work in an airbrush, and have a range and depth of color unattainable in watercolor. By 1961, he gave up on all other media and used acrylic paints exclusively—these works are referred to as Polymers. Jonson’s works from the 1950s stand as a transition period during which he relearned to paint using this new material and explored new artistic directions. The early 1960s show a rejuvenated expression and convey his spiritual vision in new and exciting ways (Hartel 370, 379).
During this late phase he worked extensively to support younger-emerging artists. Among these were Richard Diebenkorn, Agnes Martin, and the members of the Taos Moderns group. When Richard Diebenkorn attended UNM for his Master’s in Art, he had already taught at the California School of Fine Art and shown his work in several exhibitions. At UNM he chose to keep to himself and didn’t always submit to the will of his instructors. When the time came for him to graduate, his instructors wanted to fail him. Jonson, recognizing his talent as an artist, stepped in and threatened to bring the issue to the board of regents if his instructors failed him. Because of this intervention, Diebenkorn graduated from UNM in 1952 (Ware interview). In the 1960s, Jonson organized a traveling exhibition of the artists that he felt were the center of the Taos painters. They were dubbed “Group 7” and they consisted of Louis Catusco, Rini Templeton, Louis Ribak, Beatrice Mandelman, Wesley Rusnell, Oli Sihvonen, and John De Puy. In a letter to the author, John De Puy recalled Jonson:
Raymond Jonson was both a mentor and teacher. His concept of the spiritual in art has been a lifelong search—that I hope is reflected in my art. He helped organize—together with Dorothy Morang (senior curator of the State Museum of Art in Santa Fe) the first major exhibit of the Taos Modernists in the early ‘60s. He also inspired the founding of “Group 7” a group of modernists that he felt were the nucleus of the Taos group. It showed first at his gallery—then traveled nationally. He was almost a father figure to me – with advice – and material help during hard times (De Puy).
Jonson’s wife Vera passed away in 1965 after several years of declining health. Since they had no children, Jonson dedicated the last seventeen years of his life to painting and running the Jonson Gallery. In 1978, Jonson abruptly quit painting. The primary reason for this decision was his belief that an artist should retire at the apex of his creative work. In his catalog of works, he listed his final painting, Polymer No. 19, 1978, as Swan Song. Jonson spent the last four years of his life maintaining the Jonson Gallery and passed away in 1982 (Hartel 404).
Jonson’s career was not that of a celebrity artist, but a man dedicated to a singular vision which he pursued indefatigably, often to the detriment of his financial success. He could have painted more landscapes or continued as a stage designer, but he believed that his purpose in life was to paint spiritual-nonobjective art. In this, he faced many obstacles, but eventually he created an environment for this art to prosper beyond his own artistic vision. Jonson was a great artist, but it was his efforts as an innovator, teacher, curator, and mentor that truly defined him.
De Puy, John. Letter to Matthew Rowe. 27 April 2015.
Garman, Ed. The Art of Raymond Jonson, Painter. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico, 1976. Print.
Hartel, Herbert R. The Art and Life of Raymond Jonson, 1891-1982: Concerning the Spiritual in
American Abstract Art. N.p.: n.p., 2002. Print.
Ware, Robert. Personal Interview. 2 August 2014
Ware, Robert, Raymond Jonson, and MaLin Wilson-Powell. To Form from Air: Music and the Art of
Raymond Jonson. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico, 2010. Print.
Southwestern American abstract painter, Ed Garman was well known for his unique style of dynamic painting as well as his association with the Transcendental Painting Group, in which he worked alongside and befriended such artists as Emil Bisttram and Raymond Jonson. An extremely prolific artist, Garman dedicated his life to the study and production of non-objective, abstract painting. As a part of the Transcendental Painting Group, Garman sought to produce apolitical, non-representational paintings that would serve to transcend painting from the “appearance of the physical world, through new concepts of space, color, light and design, to imaginative realms that are idealistic and spiritual”1. In depth study of Cubist, Post-Impressionist, and Bauhaus as well as Platonic theory led Garman to an increasingly reductive approach to painting across the span of his lifetime. He worked to create paintings that he believed would not only achieve a type of spiritual beauty, but would provide the basis for an emotional exchange between viewer and painting.
Ed Garman was born on July 4, 1914 in Bridgeport, Connecticut and raised in the Lehigh Valley of Pennsylvania. After relocating to the Southwest to attend the University of New Mexico he began to develop an interest in abstraction and structural forms. Garman was immediately drawn to the work of modern European stage set designers Adolph Appia and Edward Gordon Craig, while working at the university theater. Appia and Craig’s abstract approach to stage design and lighting informed much of Garman’s early landscape, still life, and portrait painting. During the Depression, Garman worked at an archeological dig for a Works Progress Administration project in 1934 where he sorted pottery shards and developed an appreciation for the geometric forms and aesthetic of Native American craft design. His love for abstraction was further solidified after visiting a Vincent van Gogh retrospective and viewing the paintings of Wassily Kandinsky at the Art Institute of Chicago a year later. The artist began to compile his first set of abstract paintings during this time. Garman traveled abroad to Mexico where he studied murals by Diego Rivera and Clemente Orozco. Though he appreciated their abstract approach, Garman was not interested in the muralist’s nationalistic agendas or the commercial aspect of their work. Instead, he favored the less political aesthetics of traditional Native American arts. In 1938 Garman married fellow student Coreva Hanford. Hanford, a philosophy major, introduced him to Platonic philosophy, which greatly influenced his abstract approach to painting.
In 1940 Garman traveled to New York and visited the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, where he admired and gathered inspiration from the work of Kandinsky and Rudolf Bauer2. Incorporating some of their philosophies into his own paintings he worked toward achieving an art of aesthetic abstraction that was not preoccupied with moral or political interests, but that instead emphasized the relationship of geometric shapes, lines, and flat color.
Despite the economic challenges of The Great Depression, Garman was excited by the possibility he saw in abstract painting and joined the Transcendental Painting Group in 1941. He was introduced to the group through William Lumpkins, a fellow New Mexico-based abstract painter, who he had met while working on a National Youth Administration Project near Jemez3. In the Transcendental Painting Group, he was among fellow West Coast abstract painters including Emil Bisttram, Raymond Jonson, William Lumpkins, Agnes Pelton, Florence Miller Pierce, Horrace Towner Pierce, and Canadian artist Lawren Harris. Raymond Jonson, with whom he formed a particularity close friendship, played a vital role in the encouragement of Garman’s work and ideology. Jonson became Garman’s mentor, and encouraged him to explore the potential for spiritual beauty in abstraction, a major tenet of the Transcendental Painting Group. Garman later became Jonson’s biographer, publishing The Art of Raymond Jonson, Painter through the University of New Mexico in 1976. The Transcendental Painting Group’s radical approach to abstraction was influenced in part by the theories and paintings of two of Garman’s favorite artists, Kandinsky and Mondrian, as well as a range of philosophical and occult teachings such as Theosophy, Zen Buddhism, and Dynamic Symmetry4. Their approach to art—which emphasized abstract elements such as form, color, line, and shape over representation—remained brazenly at odds with New Mexico’s popular realist style of the era, which usually featured romanticized landscapes and portraits of Native Americans5.
The Transcendental Painting Group was forced to discontinue because of World War II and Garman put his artistic ambitions on hold. He was drafted into the United States Navy and relocated first to San Diego to train and later to San Francisco and served from 1943 to 1945. In the Navy, he was stationed for a time in the Martial Islands and Okinawa, Japan. Though he found little time to pick up a paintbrush, Garman was able to sustain his love of painting and develop his abstract ideologies through occasional trips to the San Francisco Museum of Art. Garman’s experiences resulted in his theory of “dynamic painting,” which argued that painted combinations of movement and stillness could evoke “empathetic responses”6. Regardless of Garman’s seemingly apolitical approach to his work, the violence and brutality of World War II only further convinced him of society’s abundance of waste and extreme absence of beauty—a cynical truth that only furthered his drive to create art7.
Garman continued painting until his death in 2004. His vision and purpose never altered. I want to create an environment in which the, the, the witness, the observer, the audience can get total emotional freedom to follow the line of the work as an environment. Garman’s paintings can be found in several prominent public collections including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington D.C., the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego.
Written and compiled by Lauren A. Zelaya
1Tiska Blankenship. Vision and Spirit: The Transcendental Painting Group, Jonson Gallery of the University of New Mexico Art Museums. 1997, page 3.
2Lorenz, Marianne. Theme and Improvisation: Kandinsky & The American Avant-Garde 1912-1950. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1992, page 184.
3Ibid, Page 182.
4Tiska Blankenship. Vision and Spirit: The Transcendental Painting Group, Jonson Gallery of the University of New Mexico Art Museums. 1997, page 4.
5Michael Koster. “Taking the High Road.” Art & Antiques 21, no 9 (October 1998), page 95.
6Virginia M. Mecklenburg. The Patricia and Phillip Frost Collection, American Abstraction: 1930-1945. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989, page 72
7Ed Garman and Derrick Cartwright. Oral history interview with Ed Garman, 1998 Mar. 25-30, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution..
From there, he studied and traveled widely, pursuing interests in music and the visual arts. In 1932 he went to New Mexico and almost immediately fell under the influence of Andrew Dasburg, who became his mentor for the next several years. Portraying the southwestern landscape in watercolor, Wells moved through various modernist idioms. His early work incorporated gestural, calligraphic lines suggestive of Chinese ideograms. Later he investigated the structure of natural forms the patternlike appearance of the landscape.
Influenced by Dasburg, Raymond Jonson, and Georgia O’Keeffe, Wells developed a personal semi-abstract style that brought considerable praise from his peers. He also deserves recognition for donating his extensive collection of santos to the Museum of New Mexico. At Wells’s recommendation, E. Boyd—who had originally invited Wells to New Mexico—became the museum’s first curator of Spanish colonial art.
Museum of New Mexico. Cady Wells, 1904-1954. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico: School of American Research, 1956.
Duncan, Kate C. “Cady Wells: The Personal Vision.” In Cady Wells: A Retrospective Exhibition. Albuquerque: University Art Museum, University of New Mexico, 1967.
Udall. Modernist Painting in New Mexico, pp. 199-201.
Charles Eldredge, Julie Schimmel, and William H. Truettner. Art in New Mexico, 1900-1945: Paths to Taos and Santa Fe (Washington, DC: National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1986).
Smithsonian American Art Museum (Quotations)
Lois P. Rudnick, “The Art of Cady Wells from 1933 to 1954″, American Art Review, February, 2011.
Gribbroek’s early connection to New Mexico was with an Isleta Pueblo family in 1929, with whom he lived off and on for several years. Upon the occasion of seeing Lumpkins and Brooks Willis sketching at the pueblo, Gribbroek approached them and introduced himself. This was the beginning of his long and close friendship with Lumpkins. He moved to Taos late in 1936 and enrolled in Bisttram’s Taos School of Art, where he became acquainted H.T. Pierce and Florence Miller. (He later introduced his friend Lumpkins to Bisttram.) Gribbroek’s talent established him, along with Pierce and Miller, as one of Bisttram’s best students, and as such, he was asked to join the TPG.
From late 1939 to early 1940, Gribbroek taught art and painted portraits in Amarillo, Texas, during which time Jonson doubted “that any transcendental painting [would] materialize through him….” By spring 1940, Gribbroek returned to Taos and continued to participate in the TPG exhibition schedule; however, paintings that he completed during the TPG period were few and have since disappeared.
In June 1938, Morang wrote, “Gribbroek forces the color in his non-objective compositions to blend like colored metal… has caught the interplay of unrelated elements… [and] calls to mind some of the constructivists, plus a greater emotional intensity.” Later that year Morang wrote, “Robbert Gribbroek, one of the best draftsmen in America, has command of geometrical forms second to few…” his praise continued into 1939 with, “Gribbroek’s works are startling in their exactness and precision [and]…touch on the order of the universe or planetary movement.”
Shortly after the start of World War II, Gribbroek sought work associated with war production at Douglas Aircraft in Los Angeles, where he, like Pierce, secured employment as a technical illustrator. As excellent draftsperson, Gribbroek was later briefly employed at Disney studio. He eventually became the co-founder of Looney Tunes at Warner Brothers in Hollywood and was their art director for eighteen years. He returned to Taos as often as he could between 1942 and 1960, staying each time until he ran out of money. At Warner Brothers he developed the backgrounds for the famous Tweety Bird, Roadrunner, Sylvester the Cat, and other characters. The residents of Taos regarded him as a glamorous figure because he circulated among the famous movie stars (he himself was cast in four feature films, including Candy with Richard Burton), raised chinchillas for the fur industry, and contributed to designing celebrated cartoon characters.
As a member of the art community, Gribbroek exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts in Santa Fe and the Blue Door Gallery in Taos, and he joined the Taos Art Association in 1953. From 1965 to 1970 Gribbroek lived in Barcelona and Sitgas, Spain, where he acted in thirty-five TV commercials and in several films. In August 1970 he returned to his beloved Taos to focus on art, but unfortunately, his death the following year cut short his renewed efforts.
Garman, Ed. “Robert Gribbroek.” Vision and Spirit: The Transcendental Painting Group. Albuquerque: Jonson Gallery of the University of New Mexico, 1997. 46-47. Print.